Tripartite motif-containing protein 19; Functions via its association with PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in a wide range of important cellular processes, including tumor suppression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, senescence, DNA damage response, and viral defense mechanisms. Acts as the scaffold of PML-NBs allowing other proteins to shuttle in and out, a process which is regulated by SUMO-mediated modifications and interactions. Isoform PML-4 has a multifaceted role in the regulation of apoptosis and growth suppression: activates RB1 and inhibits AKT1 via interactions with PP1 and PP2A phosphatases respectively, negatively affects the PI3K pathway by inhibiting MTOR and activating PTEN, and positively regulates p53/TP53 by acting at different levels (by promoting its acetylation and phosphorylation and by inhibiting its MDM2-dependent degradation). Isoform PML-4 also: acts as a transcriptional repressor of TBX2 during cellular senescence and the repression is dependent on a functional RBL2/E2F4 repressor complex, regulates double-strand break repair in gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage responses via its interaction with WRN, acts as a negative regulator of telomerase by interacting with TERT, and regulates PER2 nuclear localization and circadian function. Isoform PML-6 inhibits specifically the activity of the tetrameric form of PKM. The nuclear isoforms (isoform PML-1, isoform PML-2, isoform PML-3, isoform PML-4 and isoform PML-5) in concert with SATB1 are involved in local chromatin-loop remodeling and gene expression regulation at the MHC-I locus. Isoform PML-2 is required for efficient IFN-gamma induced MHC II gene transcription via regulation of CIITA. Cytoplasmic PML is involved in the regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. PML also regulates transcription activity of ELF4 and can act as an important mediator for TNF-alpha- and IFN-alpha-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell network formation and migration.
Synonyms: H3BRN3, H3BT57, P29590, Q05835, Q59H09 ...